Infancy[ edit ] Intrinsic emotion-regulation efforts during infancy are believed to be guided primarily by innate physiological response systems. At three months, infants can engage in self-soothing behaviors like sucking and can reflexively respond to and signal feelings of distress.
Learning Objectives This is an intermediate to advanced level course. It is highly recommended that those wishing to take this course first take the course ADHD: Nature, Course, Outcomes, and Comorbidity.
After completing this course, mental health professionals will be able to: Discuss the assumptions that affect treatment choices for ADHD. Apply knowledge of developmental issues to the management of ADHD.
List the four classes of psychotropic medications useful in the treatment of ADHD, as well as their mode of action and side effects. The materials in this course are based on the most accurate information available to the author at the time of writing.
The scientific literature on ADHD grows daily, and new information may emerge that supersedes these course materials. This course will equip clinicians to have a basic understanding of the treatments for ADHD in children and adolescents.
Introduction Over the past century, numerous diagnostic labels have been given to clinically referred children having significant deficiencies in behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, resistance to distraction, and the regulation of activity level. Previously employed terms have been brain-injured child syndrome, hyperkinesis, hyperactive child syndrome, minimal brain dysfunction, and Attention Deficit Disorder with or without Hyperactivity.
Such relabeling every decade or so reflects a shifting emphasis in the primacy accorded certain symptom clusters within the disorder based, in part, on the substantial research conducted each year on ADHD and how investigators and theorists interpret those findings.
This course provides a critical overview of the treatments that have some efficacy for the management of ADHD as shown through scientific research. That literature is voluminous, however, and so space here permits only a brief discussion and critique of each of the major treatments.
More detailed discussions of these treatments can be found in the texts by Barkley and DuPaul and Stoner My perspective on diagnosis and treatment is highly congruent with these authoritative sources, but adds the important considerations of practicality and safety of treatments to guide overall intervention planning for children and adolescents with ADHD.
This course begins with a brief overview of the nature of the disorder, its prevalence, developmental course, and etiologies. A more detailed examination of these topics can be found in the companion course on this website on the nature of ADHD in children and adolescents and in the text by Barkley Subsequently, the main purpose of this course is addressed through a critical overview of various treatments for the disorder.
Minimal information on the assessment of ADHD will be provided here due to both space limitations and the availability of more detailed information on this topic to be found in the companion course, ADHD in Children: Recent Developments Over the past two decades there have been several important developments related to the treatment of ADHD.
These developments include a consensus statements from major professional and scientific organizations about appropriate treatment of ADHD, b proliferation in the variety of medications used to treat ADHD, c some major additions to the research literature on treatment of adolescents with ADHD, d unique insights about treatment from the Multimodal Treatment Study of ADHD The MTA Cooperative Group, a, b, a, b and e increased attention to the alternative approaches to treatment development and evaluation that emphasize treatment effectiveness as opposed to just treatment efficacy.
The current course places equal or greater emphasis on the practicality of treatment. Practicality as we use the term is distinct from efficacy and effectiveness. Efficacy refers to demonstrated treatment success in controlled research studies often taking place in clinical laboratories or university settings and typically designed, supervised, and executed by experts and their students and staff.Many people with Major Depression report that a stressful event (such as the list below) triggered their first or second depressive episode.
Interestingly, research suggests that later depressive episodes (starting with the third) tend to develop spontaneously (in the absence of any particular. Horoscope and natal chart of Elvis Presley, born on /01/ you will find in this page an excerpt of the astrological portrait and the interpration of the planetary dominants.
Why use Sand Play Therapy? Gives expression to non-verbalized emotional issues. Play is the language of children and the sand tray provides a safe medium for expression, free from evaluation.
Horoscope and natal chart of Freddie Mercury, born on /09/ you will find in this page an excerpt of the astrological portrait and the interpration of the planetary dominants. Type or paste a DOI name into the text box. Click Go. Your browser will take you to a Web page (URL) associated with that DOI name.
Send questions or comments to doi. The prevalence of antisocial and delinquent behavior in juveniles has increased dramatically over the past decades, along with the prevalence of other health .