No one expects an unplanned pregnancy. But it happens often.
That figure drops to 0. However, a study in Kenya found that when implant technology is available, it is welcomed by many women and is more effective in preventing pregnancy than short-acting methods of contraception. While amenorrhea absence of menstruation is still considered unacceptable by many women, a preference for infrequent Indian women and reproductive health or amenorrhea has increased in recent years.
Even among women in Africa who preferred monthly menses, the majority of all women surveyed responded positively to trying a method of contraception that would temporarily induce amenorrhea.
|Physician Guidelines & Reports||Several news stories in recent months have illustrated gender inequalities on a global scale.|
|Infertility | Reproductive Health | CDC||Frequently Asked Questions What is infertility? In general, infertility is defined as not being able to get pregnant conceive after one year or longer of unprotected sex.|
|About NIRRH||The value of this multidimensional indicator, Gender Inequality Index GII is determined by numerous factors including maternal mortality rateadolescent fertility rateeducational achievement and labour force participation rate. Studies have indicated that boys are more likely to receive treatment from health care facilities compared to girls, when controlled for SES status.|
|Women’s Reproductive Health | Reproductive Health | CDC||Krishna at Goddess Radharani's feet. The Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent brought changes to Indian society.|
|Empowering women and girls: the impact of gender equality on public health||Ashwagandha, also known as Indian ginsenghas a wide range of health benefits, which include its ability to reduce the blood sugar levels, fight cancerreduce stress and anxietyand increase fertility in men. It also helps prevent arthritisasthmahypertension, and rheumatism.|
Only a third of women of reproductive age preferred monthly bleeding, and the majority of women between the ages of 15 and 49 preferred bleeding less than once a month or amenorrhea.
The difficulty of finding transportation, the financial cost of travel and of contraceptives, and the travel time taking away from child-rearing and work make consistent visits to clinics a challenge for many women in low- and middle-income countries.
Furthermore, although oral contraceptives and hormonal injections are popular in many regions in the Global South, particularly in Africa, effective use of these methods is constrained by limited supplies at clinics. A study of men and women in health zones of the DRC with strong access to family planning found that the main barriers to contraceptives include fear of sterility, costs, cultural norms, family pressure to avoid contraceptives, and a lack of information.
Low- and middle-income countries tend to have greater direct government support of family planning, while countries in the Global North have shifted towards indirect support of contraception. The majority of African countries directly support the distribution of contraceptives; Somalia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, and Sierra Leone offer indirect support.
Byall countries in Central and South America provided direct support for contraception access, except for Argentina and Belize. The majority of governments in Europe and North America offer direct support for contraceptives, although Andorra, Germany, Greece, Italy, Slovakia, and Switzerland provided no governmental support as of However, the success of governmental policies supporting contraception depends on sufficient funding, program implementation, cultural attitudes, civil conflict, and existing health care infrastructure, among other factors.
Contraceptive access in the United States In28 U. The group is currently working to get over-the-counter approval for progestin-only pills, which may have fewer side effects than combined hormonal contraceptives. In addition, although interest in over-the-counter oral contraceptives was highest among women who were uninsured, there is concern that an over-the-counter option could make birth control unaffordable for women on federal programs like Medicaid, which may not cover all over-the-counter drugs.
Like other hormonal contraceptives, EC pills inhibit or delay ovulation or prevent fertilization.
Although repeated EC use has not been associated with health risks, ECs have a higher failure rate than modern contraceptives designed for regular use, resulting in increased pregnancy risk when ECs are used as the primary contraceptive method.
Current research is being conducted to determine whether a single vaginal administration of synthetic progestin via Carraguard gel, a non-contraceptive microbicide gel used to prevent transmission of sexually transmitted infections and HIV, might be an effective emergency contraceptive method.
As ofemergency contraceptives were available without a prescription in 95 countries, and countries had registered an emergency contraceptive product. This phenomenon is particularly apparent among educated independent women in India, where sales of EC pills have surpassed sales of condoms and other oral contraceptives.
It is hypothesized that the adoption of oral contraceptives intended for regular use has been slow due to a historical emphasis on female sterilization and the success of large advertising campaigns by EC manufacturers.
Instead, many women turn to over-the-counter emergency contraceptives to prevent pregnancy. Use of emergency contraception in the U. Because there is no medical necessity for the withdrawal bleeding period, and because women have increasingly expressed interest in having fewer or no periods, a number of hormonal contraceptives have been developed that reduce or eliminate the hormone-free period.
Other methods of continuous contraception include hormonal implants and hormonal IUDs.
Although some follicular growth occurs with continuous contraception, multiple studies have shown that continuous contraceptives suppress follicular growth more effectively than cyclical contraceptives, which may decrease the risk of ovulation and pregnancy.
Recent clinical trials have evaluated the contraceptive potential of testosterone and a variety of synthetic hormones. Currently, androgen-progestin regimens have been the most promising hormonal method in terms of effectiveness and minimization of side effects.
The injection contains a polymer gel that damages sperm when inserted into the vas deferens, producing infertile sperm until reversed by a second injection. New Contraceptive Technologies 72 Although advances in male contraceptive technologies have been slow, a review of developments in contraception by Rowlands describes a number of new female contraceptives that have recently been approved or are still in the testing phase.
One recent innovation that could greatly increase contraceptive access in low- and middle-income countries is the Sayana Press. An injection that enters the skin rather than the muscle, the Sayana Press is extremely user-friendly and requires only basic training to administer; thus, community health workers and even laywomen themselves can inject the contraceptive.
Nearlydoses of were administered between and in the four countries that were part of the pilot initiative, and now several countries worldwide are incorporating the Sayana Press into their family planning programs.Women's health in India can be examined in terms of multiple indicators, which vary by geography, socioeconomic standing and culture.
To adequately improve the health of women in India multiple dimensions of wellbeing must be analysed in relation to global health averages and also in comparison to men in India. Health is an important factor that contributes to human wellbeing and economic growth.
New global estimates on preterm birth published 17 November - World Prematurity Day - New global estimates show that in , approximately % of all live births globally were preterm.
Published in the journal The Lancet Global Health, and co-authored by WHO and HRP staff, the study underlines the crucial need to safeguard the health and well-being of all women and girls, and their. The Journal of Family & Reproductive Health (JFRH) is the quarterly official journal of Vali–e–Asr Reproductive Health Research lausannecongress2018.com journal features fulllength, peerreviewed papers reporting original research, clinical case histories, review articles, as .
ScienceDirect is the world's leading source for scientific, technical, and medical research. Explore journals, books and articles. Achieving good reproductive health remains a far-off goal in many parts of the world.
This lack of care has repercussions. An estimated women die of pregnancy-related causes each day, amounting to more than , deaths each year; 99% of these deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. Indian Women and Reproductive Health Introduction The reality of women’s life remains invisible to men and women alike and this invisibility persists at all levels beginning with the family to the nation.