Shortly after Everett's well-received remarks, Lincoln spoke for only a few minutes. Despite the historical significance of Lincoln's speech, modern scholars disagree as to its exact wording, and contemporary transcriptions published in newspaper accounts of the event and even handwritten copies by Lincoln himself differ in their wording, punctuation, and structure.
Three individuals took part in each session of the experiment: The "experimenter", who was in charge of the session.
The "teacher", a volunteer for a single session. The "teacher" was led to believe that they were merely assisting, whereas they were actually the subject of the experiment.
The "learner", an actor and a confederate of the experimenter, who pretended to be a volunteer. The subject and the actor arrived at the session together. The experimenter told them that they were taking part in "a scientific study of memory and learning", to see what the effect of punishment is on a subject's ability to memorize content.
Also, he always clarified that the payment for their participation in the experiment was secured regardless of its development. The subject and actor drew slips of paper to determine their roles. Unknown to the subject, both slips said "teacher". The actor would always claim to have drawn the slip that read "learner", thus guaranteeing that the subject would always be the "teacher".
Next, the teacher and learner were taken into an adjacent room where the learner was strapped into what appeared to be an electric chair.
The experimenter told the participants this was to ensure that the learner would not escape. The teacher and learner were then separated, so that they could communicate but not see each other.
The teacher was then given a list of word pairs that he was to teach the learner. The teacher began by reading the list of word pairs to the learner.
The teacher would then read the first word of each pair and read four possible answers. The learner would press a button to indicate his response.
If the answer was incorrect, the teacher would administer a shock to the learner, with the voltage increasing in volt increments for each wrong answer. If correct, the teacher would read the next word pair.
In reality, there were no shocks. After the learner was separated from the teacher, the learner set up a tape recorder integrated with the electroshock generator, which played prerecorded sounds for each shock level.
As the voltage of the fake shocks increased, the learner began making audible protests, such as banging repeatedly on the wall that separated him from the teacher. When the highest voltages were reached, the learner fell silent.
The prods were, in this order: The experiment requires that you continue. It is absolutely essential that you continue. You have no other choice, you must go on.Famous Entrepreneurs.
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