Example of qualitative research study in a peer reviewed journal

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Example of qualitative research study in a peer reviewed journal

Licence This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, reproduction and adaptation in any medium and for any purpose provided that it is properly attributed.

Abstract Background Modern advances in sequencing technology have enabled the census of microbial members of many natural ecosystems. Recently, attention is increasingly being paid to the microbial residents of human-made, built ecosystems, both private homes and public subways, office buildings, and hospitals.

Here, we report results of the characterization of the microbial ecology of a singular built environment, the International Space Station ISS. Results Sterile swabs were used to sample 15 surfaces onboard the ISS.

The sites sampled were designed to be analogous to samples collected for 1 the Wildlife of Our Homes project and 2 a study of cell phones and shoes that were concurrently being collected for another component of Project MERCCURI.

Sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes amplified from DNA extracted from each swab was used to produce a census of the microbes present on each surface sampled. Conclusions While significantly different from homes on Earth and the Human Microbiome Project samples analyzed here, the microbial community composition on the ISS was more similar to home surfaces than to the human microbiome samples.

There was no discernible biogeography of microbes on the 15 ISS surfaces, although this may be a reflection of the small sample size we were able to obtain.

Introduction There is a growing appreciation of the importance of microbial communities found in diverse environments from the oceans, to soil, to the insides and outsides of plants and animals.

One relatively unexplored type of built environment is that found in space.

Example of qualitative research study in a peer reviewed journal

As humans expand their reach into the solar system, with renewed interest in space travel, and with the possibility of the colonization of other planets and moons, it is of critical importance to understand the microbial ecology of the built environments being utilized for such endeavors.

Early work primarily focused on ensuring that the surfaces of spacecraft were free of microbial contaminants in an effort to avoid inadvertent panspermia seeding other planets with microbes from Earth Pierson, Work on human-occupied spacecraft such as Mir, Space Shuttles, and Skylab focused more on microbes with possible human health effects.

With the launch of the ISS, it was understood that this new built environment would be permanently housing microbes as well as humans. Efforts were made to establish a baseline microbial census.

For example, Novikova et al. These early studies were unavoidably limited by their reliance on culturing to identify microbial species. Originally launched inthe capability of the LOCAD-PTS was expanded in to include an assay for fungi beta-glucan, a fungal cell wall component and Gram positive bacteria lipoteichoic acid, a component of the cell wall of Gram positive bacteria.

A more recent study examined several samples collected on the Japanese module of the ISS over a period of four years, also sequenced with pyrosequencing Ichijo et al. The advantage of Illumina sequencing, relative to previous pyrosequencing efforts, is the significant increase in depth of sequencing.

Absolute risk

This increased depth allowed us to analyze 15—20 times as many sequences as these earlier studies. The sample matching is imperfect; for example, doorsills were used in houses because they collect dust but, in the microgravity of the ISS, dust accumulates in air filters.A research paper is a primary source that is, it reports the methods and results of an original study performed by the authors.

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Example of qualitative research study in a peer reviewed journal

Focus and Scope. FQS is a peer-reviewed multilingual open-access journal for qualitative research, established in FQS is interested in empirical studies conducted using qualitative methods, and in contributions that deal with the theory, methodology and application of qualitative research.

A microbial survey of the International Space Station (ISS) [PeerJ]

Innovative ways of thinking, writing, researching and presenting are especially welcome. Open Access journals are the major source of knowledge for young and aspiring generations who are keen in pursuing a career in sciences.

This system provides easy access to networks of scientific lausannecongress2018.coms that contribute their scholarly works to Open Access journals gain remarkable reputation as the research scholarly explore these works extensively. By means of a quantitative study of peer reviewed journals in the fields of medical ethics and bioethics for the period –, this article aims to examine four .

Absolute risk. Absolute risk measures the size of a risk in a person or group of people. This could be the risk of developing a disease over a certain period or it could be a measure of the effect of a treatment, for example how much the risk is reduced by treatment in a person or group.

Environmental Research Letters - IOPscience